Use of Tiles (Mosiac, Ceramic and Glass) for Cladding

CLADDING

  • CLADDING is the covering of one material with another. It has different meanings depending on the context.
  • In BUILDING CONSTRUCTION, cladding may refer to the application of one material over another to provide a weather-proof layer intended to control the infiltration of weather elements. Cladding does not necessarily have to provide a water-proof condition but is instead a control element. This control element may only serve to safely direct water or wind in order to control run-off and prevent infiltration into the building structure. Here, we are going to especifically deal with tile cladding which include Mosaic Tile Cladding, Ceramic Tile Cladding and Glass Tile Cladding also.

 

  

 

CERAMIC  TILES  AND  MOSAIC

  • Today glazed tiles, commonly called ceramic tiles, are infinitely used in a numerous ways throughout the world, and one doesn’t have to be amongst the wealthy to own them. 
  •  In commercial buildings, where both beauty and durability are considerations, ceramic tiles will be found, particularly in lobby areas and restrooms.  Ceramic Tiles have come to become a part of life.
  •  They are also the choice of industry, where walls and floors must resist chemicals.  Spreading its fame across the galaxy it’s a known fact that even the space shuttle never leaves earth without its protective jacket of high-tech, heat-resistant tiles.”

 

 

 

Tiles

  •  A tile is not just a stone, its a piece of artArt has been portrayed over the decades through ceramic tiles. During the 1920s and 30s, Spanish Colonial Revival was one of the most popular architectural styles in the Southwest.
  •  Colorful ceramic tile as well as clay tile roofs, roughly plastered walls, arched doorways, and wrought iron window grilles create some of the key elements of this style. In Turkey, tiles and ceramics occupies a place of prominence in the history of Islamic art. Its roots can be traced at least as far back as the Uighurs of the 8th and 9th centuries. Its subsequent development was influenced by Karakhanid, Ghaznavid, and (especially) Iranian Seljuk art. Even today tile paintings are a work of art that many are crazy about.

 

 

Glass Mosaic Tiles                                                                                        

 

 Single element of glass mosaic tile

 

 

  • Glass in tile introduces complexities to the installer, as glass is more rigid than ceramic or porcelain tile, so glass tiles break more readily.
  • Glass mosaic tiles (known as “Smalti”) are made by mixing molten glass with metal oxides for color.

 

Manufacture of ceramic and wall tiles

  • Ceramic wall tiles are normally porous, which favours their adhesion to walls. On the contrary, floor tiles have low porosity, with low-medium water absorption, which gives them better technical characteristics.
  • Traditionally, tiles were manufactured following different methods and by means of a practically manual process. As from the seventies, the process has gradually been automated and methods have been unified considerably, with dry pressing being the most common and allowing the product to be manufactured in two different ways-----
  • Wet milling – Spray drying - Pressing - Drying - (Firing) - Glazing - Firing (Variable without glazing and with or without polishing) (Variable with cogeneration).
  • Dry milling - Pressing - (Firing) - Glazing - Firing. Raw materials preparation - Mixing - Extrusion - (Glazing) - Firing.

    

Process of fabrication of ceramic tiles
 
Dry or wet milling
 
  • After a first mixing of the body components, the mixture is usually dry milled (hammer or pendulum mills) or wet milled (continuous or batch ball mills).
  • The resulting milled material exhibits different characteristics depending on whether dry or wet milling is used. In dry milling, fragmentation occurs and particle aggregates and agglomerates remain, with a larger particle size (there are particles larger than 300 microns) than by the wet method (all particles are smaller than 200 microns). A decisive factor in selecting the type of milling to be used is the capital outlay required in each case.

 

Preparation, Application and Decoration.  

  • In the glaze preparation process, the frit and additives are usually ground in alumina ball mill until a preset reject is obtained. The conditions of the aqueous suspension are then adjusted Suspension characteristics will depend on the application method to be used. Ceramic tile glazing is done continuously.
  • The most common application methods used in tile manufacture are by waterfall glazing, spraying, dry glazing or decorating. Screen-printing is the most widespread tile decorating technique,
  • due to the ease of this application in the glazing lines. The technique is used in single, twice and third firing, and it consists of printing a given design by means of one or more printing screens (tensioned fabric with a set mesh aperture).
  • The screen surface is masked, and the printing ink is only put through the openings of the design to be reproduced. When the squeegee crosses the screen it presses the printing ink through the openings left in the screen, thus printing the design on the tile.


 

 

 

Preparation for laying:

  • Before laying the tiles,

  • Any concrete base must be dry.

  • a damp proof membrane must be laid and screed down before    tiling in case of dampness.
  • Small depressions must be filled with cement and sand mortar.  
  • Removal of dirt or debris grease and polish present on the surface. The surface should also be free from any dirt or debris.
  • (If working on a timber floor, make sure it is well ventilated or rots could set in do not lay tiles straight on to a suspended timber floor. Strengthen it by covering it with sheets of plywood at least 12 mm (½) thick. Prime the plywood before tiling).   

 

 

 Fixing Tiles:

Fix the first tiles accurately, Place a few dry tiles in position to check the right angle between the horizontal and vertical guide battens then spread tile adhesive onto the wall, covering 1 sq. m. at a time. Comb the adhesive horizontally with a notched spreader for food adeshens.

Lay on the tiles, pressing them down with a twisting motion. Universal tiles need no help with spacing their angled edge gives a perfect spaced line for grouting. With other tiles, you can use matchsticks or suitably thick card to achieve the correct spacing. 

Check each square of tiling before continuing and fix the whole tiles first. Allow at least 12 hours for the adhesive to dry before removing the battens and fixing the border row with cut tiles.  

 

Never begin tiling in a corner or at the floor level, since the vertical and horizontal lines are rarely like to be true. Instead establish the starting point using a measuring staff marked off with the tile width, including the space in between the tiles.
 

 

  

Grouting:

The gaps between the tiles after laying can be filled in by special ready mix grouts available in different colours . After spreading the grout and finishing of smooth , the excess grout should be removed immediately or else it will get harden.
The first step in grouting the new floor tiles was to remove the plastic spacers. These little X-shaped pieces are made from a soft, flexible plastic, so I discovered that the best way to remove them was to shove my needle-nose pliers into one edge. on the bag of grout, I sprayed a light mist of water on the tiles, so they would not rob the grout of moisture and affect its setting.
 

 

WATERPROOF GROUT

 

 Size And Thickness Available:

Mosaic tile available in size 20x20mm
25x25mm,
50x25mm,
37.5x35.7mm
50x50mm

 Ceramic tiles available in size
150x150mm  200x60mm
150x200mm, 200x70 mm
200x200mm, 200x75mm
300x300mm
 Mosaic glass tiles thickness
4mm

Ceramic tiles thickness
 8mm
10mm

Rates-rs 12 sq ft to rs 90sq ft (ceramic tiles)
          rs 90 sqft forglass (mosaic tiles) 

 

 

Tile fixture on the wall

 

 

 

 

 Procedure for mosaic tiles laying

All walls and surfaces must be smooth , even , dry , cured and free from all dirt . It is recommended to shave the substrate to make it white. If the substrate is thicker than 2 mm it is recommended to use specific products. In order to ensure a successful installation- room temperature should be between +5 and +30 C.

  • Using the flat edge of the trowel , spread appropriate setting material evenly onto the wall in the area of one square( 4 or 9 sheets ) .
  • Apply mosaic sheets with the front mounted paper facing the installer .Keep print on paper running in the same direction . Beat tile with a rubber block or rubber trowel to ensure adequate adhesion . Spacing between sheets must be the same as between individual tesserae.
 
  • Tap on mosaic tiles with a rubber trowel to ensure adhesion on the surface. Metal trowels are not to be used.
  • With a wet sponge begin to dampen mounting paper until it starts coming off easily
  • At this point remove paper starting from a corner Pull paper slowly diagonally and close to the wall, paying attention not to take off tiles. Adjust tiles and joints with a small spatula and remove glue residues before it dries.
  • Spread grout with rubber trowel in horizontal and vertical directions covering not more than 2 sqm at a time. Let the grout dry for about 10 - 20 minutes in the joints. This time depends on the room temperature at the time, but the appearance of the grout will become slightly opaque
  • Begin cleaning with dampened sponge , Always work diagonally without applying too much pressure.If necessary, use an acidic cleaner, rinsing several times with plenty of water.

 

  

Tools Used And Some Examples:

Mosaic tile available in size 20x20mm 25x25mm,50x25mm,37.5x35.7mm,50x50mm
 

  • LEFT: A colors sketch is drawn in oil pastel to give a clear impression of how the finished mosaic will look.

  • RIGHT: Tessa Rae are glue faced down on reverse image on paper. Mosaic is then attached to solid surface and paper is removed.
     

 

 

 
 Ceramic Tiles – Rate Schedule

TILE’S NAME  

SIZE RS.  PER SQ. FT.

TRAFFIC

31.6 x 31.6 CM 65

TUCSON & TAMPA  

31.6 x 31.6 CM 65

NILO &SENA 

31.6 x 31.6 CM  95

RODAS  

31.6 x 31.6 CM 95

EBRO  

44.0 x 44.0 CM 113

PIZARRA  

44.0 x 44.4 CM 113

MANISES& TOLEDO  

45.0 x 45.0 CM 120
 


Glass & Mosaic Tiles – Rate Schedule

TILE’S NAME 

 COLOUR RS.  PER SQ. FT.

GLASS TILES  

RED & ORANGE 90

GLASS TILES 

OTHER COLOURS  40

MUSAIC TILES 

   60 - ONWARDS

 

 Pictures Showing Work In Progress:

 

 

Pictures Of Finished Wall Cladding And Samples Of Tiles:

This presentation was created by: 
Gaurav Gupta, Tenzin Nyandak and Vishvajeet Tiwari